- Subject: The focus of the study - the teacher.
- Mediating artefacts: the resources mobilised by the teacher. Tools are not neutral, and can be anything ranging from the blackboard or symbolic systems such as algorithms.
- Object: Refers to the problem that the learner and teacher is working on. Engestrom refers to "problem space" or "raw material", that are moulded into outcomes with the help of tools and signs. Hardman emphasised the object as both material and deal. The actions of the teacher in the classroom gives a better idea as to what he/she is working on in the lesson (Hardman 2005).
- Rules: Directives for behaviour - that is informed by policy.
- Community: The member of the community that participates in the shared object. In this case the teacher and the learners.
- Division of labour: Reference is made to Horizontal and Vertical power relations in the class. The teacher traditionally taught the class. With the use of the computer one can shift the roles of the teacher and learners. Hardman suggests that learners function as teachers of other learners (Hardman 2005).
Hardman, J. 2005. An exploratory case study of computer use in a primary school mathematics classroom: New technology, new pedagogy? University of Cape Town. Perspectives in Education, Volume 23(4). December 2005.